However, the Briton - who is set to shift his focus to road running - had to settle for a silver medal on Saturday as Ethiopia's Muktar Edris proved strongest on the final lap.
But when he starts his career as a marathon runner, Farah will be able to reflect on having created an fantastic legacy with his four Olympic and six World Championship gold medals.
It was the great man's first defeat in a major championship race since the 2011 world 10 000m final when he also won silver - and, once again, it took dazzling speed to beat him over the last lap.
Chelimo, a native of Kenya who now lives in OR and is a member of the U.S. Army World Class Athlete program, finished in 13:33.30.
"Mo has many victories but now I have one".
"It's been wonderful. It's been a long journey but it's been incredible", said Farah who was embraced by his fans as he made his way around the stadium on a lap of honour, stopping to sign autographs and pose for "selfies".
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Everyone had expected the British distance runner to win gold but he was beaten by Muktar Edris of Ethiopia.
The silver adds to Farah's 10,000m gold medal won here on the opening night of these World Athletics Championships, the only medals won by Great Britain.
"Tactically, I was trying to cover every move and they [Edris and Ethiopian team-mate Yomif Kejelcha] had a gameplan". It doesn't quite sink in until you compete here and cross the line - I had a couple of minutes to myself - that this is it.
"I have a few more races on the track, then I will take a short break and then this chapter of my life is closed".
"The better man won on the day but I gave it all. I got boxed in early on - it doesn't normally happen - but I got boxed in early and couldn't get out".
They both failed to clear 1.97 metres - just one centimetre short of Johnson-Thompson's personal best - having jumped 1.95m and Ashley Bryant came 11th the decathlon with 8,049 points.