The parliament's majority voted for the bill, which was a response to the US new sanctions against the Islamic Republic. The additional U.S. sanctions put in place last month directly target the missile programme and the IRGC.
Chants of "Death to America" broke out as the bill was passed, according to the country's state broadcaster IRIB.
"Iran recognises the entire American military and intelligence forces as terrorist groups" for their "implicit and explicit support for terrorist groups" in the region, their role in creating the Islamic State group, and "the support for violators of fundamental humans rights especially the dictator and violent regimes", the bill's text said.
It mandates the government to allocate an additional Dollars 260 million for the "development of the missile programme" and the same amount to the Revolutionary Guards' foreign operations wing, the Quds Force, state news agency IRNA said.
The measure came in retaliation to legislation passed by US Congress and signed by President Donald Trump in early August to impose new sanctions on Iran over its missile programme.
Deputy Foreign Minister for Legal and International Affairs Seyyed Abbas Araqchi said the government fully supports the new law passed by the parliament against the United States terrorist and adventurous measures in the region, describing it as a "wise" and "appropriate" move against Washington's enmities towards Iran.
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He praised the bill, saying it "was designed wisely so that it does not violate the (nuclear deal) and provide excuses for opposing sides".
During his campaign he threatened to tear up the 2015 nuclear deal with Iran, which he has called "the worst deal ever".
The bill must now pass a second vote before being submitted to the Guardians Council for final approval and passage into law.
The deal eased sanctions on Iran in exchange for curbs to its nuclear programme and was endorsed by a United Nations resolution.
In the meantime, about $150 million will go to develop Iran's ballistic missiles.