More than one quarter of Australians were born overseas.
The ABS said Tasmania had the highest median age in the nation (42).
The nation is home to 24.4 million people, with 1.3 million new migrants calling Australia home since 2011.
But none of those countries are where Australia gets most of its migrants from.
New South Wales has the most people with 7.48 million people, Victoria has 5.92 million and Queensland comes in third with 4.7 million.
There were 46,800 same-sex couples, up 39 per cent since 2011.
Seven in ten Australians live in a capital city.
The largest change was between 2011 (22 per cent) and 2016, when an additional 2.2 million people reported having no religion.
Roughly half of all Australians were born overseas, or had one parent born overseas. There were 3,500 people aged over 100.
Australia was home on census night to 6.1 million families, 44.7 per cent of whom were couples with children.
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Of the 1.3 million new migrants arriving in Australia since 2011, most came from China (191,000) or India (163,000), although the figure is spread across 180 countries.
Questions on religion show the decline in the proportion of people calling themselves Christian has continued strongly over the past five years.
Those couples are also getting separated more often, particularly after the age of 45. Couples without children accounted for 37.8 per cent, and single parent families made up 15.8 per cent.
Though a majority of Australians own a house with a mortgage, the proportion of people renting has increased by around 20 percent since 1991.
Among states and territories, the ACT posted the biggest gains over the past five years, rising 11 per cent. Nearly one in five Tasmanians are aged over 65, and the state has a median age of 42.
However, there has been a shift towards renting, with almost 31 per cent now paying a landlord, up from just under 30 per cent five years ago and 27 per cent in 1991. 25 years ago, 41.1 per cent owned homes outright, 27.5 per cent had a mortgage and 26.9 per cent rented.
Those reporting no religion increased noticeably from 19 per cent in 2006 to 30 per cent in 2016.
The Census website was attacked by hackers several times on the evening of August 9 past year, forcing the Australian Bureau of Statistics to take the site offline just as millions of Australians were attempting to fill out the compulsory questionnaire.
"Census data provides a detailed, accurate and fascinating picture of Australia, which will be used to inform critical policy, planning and service delivery decisions for our communities over the coming years".